Identifying Data Anomalies with Verify: Quality Assurance Techniques

By Beaconcure | Oct 3, 2023

Data integrity is a fundamental pillar of clinical trials, serving as the bedrock for producing reliable outcomes. The precision and dependability of the data gathered during the trial journey are crucial to obtaining regulatory approval. Despite having the best data capture procedures and management in place, even the most meticulous teams are not immune to data anomalies that compromise the integrity of their clinical trials. 

Data anomalies encompass outliers, missing data, errors, and protocol deviations, all of which have the capacity to distort trial results, introduce bias, and erode the validity of study findings.

In this article, we explore the common types of data anomalies encountered in clinical trials, and the role of quality assurance in maintaining data integrity. We delve into the challenges posed by data anomalies and discuss the impact they can have on the credibility of clinical trial results. Finally, we describe Verify features that help overcome these challenges to meet the highest standards of data integrity.

Understanding Data Anomalies in Clinical Trials

The first step in quality assurance is to define data anomalies and a strategy for identifying them. Let’s explore these anomalies in more detail:

Data anomalies refer to unexpected or irregular patterns within a dataset that deviate from what is typically observed or out of range. These anomalies can arise due to various factors, including errors, outliers, missing data, protocol deviations, and data integrity issues. The impact of data anomalies on clinical trial results can be substantial, potentially leading to skewed outcomes, biased interpretations, and compromised validity. Therefore, it is crucial to detect, address, and prevent data anomalies to ensure accurate and reliable research findings.

Common Types of Data Anomalies Encountered in Clinical Trials


Outliers are data points that significantly differ from the overall pattern or distribution within a dataset. They may occur due to measurement errors, transcription mistakes, or extreme values. Outliers can distort statistical analyses and potentially misrepresent the true nature of the data. 

Missing Data 

Missing data refers to the absence of certain data points or variables in the collected dataset. It can result from participant non-compliance, technical issues, or errors during data collection. Missing data can introduce bias, reduce statistical power, and compromise the generalizability of study findings. Effective strategies to minimize missing data and appropriate handling techniques are vital to mitigate its impact.

Data Entry Errors 

Data entry errors occur during the process of recording or transcribing data. These errors can include typographical mistakes, incorrect units of measurement, misplaced decimal points, etc. Data entry errors can introduce inconsistencies and inaccuracies, jeopardizing the validity and reliability of study results. Implementing rigorous data quality checks and employing double-entry verification can help minimize data entry errors.

Measurement Errors 

Measurement errors can occur when there are inaccuracies or variations in the methods used to measure variables or outcomes. For example, using different units of measurement across different sites (for example US and Europe). Such errors can result from equipment malfunction, human error during data collection, or inconsistencies in measurement protocols across study sites. Measurement errors can lead to imprecise and unreliable data, compromising the accuracy of study results. Rigorous standardization of measurement procedures and robust quality control protocols are crucial in minimizing measurement errors.

Data Integrity Issues 

Data integrity issues encompass a range of problems related to the overall quality and accuracy of the data. These issues can include data duplication, incomplete data records, inconsistent data formats, and data discrepancies between different sources. Data integrity issues undermine the reliability and trustworthiness of study findings. Implementing effective data management practices, including data validation and reconciliation processes, is vital to maintaining data integrity.

By understanding these common types of data anomalies in clinical trials and their potential impact, quality assurance teams can implement appropriate strategies and processes to ensure the accuracy, reliability, and integrity of the collected data.

Techniques Used by Quality Assurance Teams to Identify Data Anomalies

Ensuring data integrity in clinical trials is a complex and crucial task, yet the available technological solutions are limited. Many CROs and pharmaceutical companies continue to rely on manual methods that are not only time-consuming but also prone to human error. In this landscape, CROs and pharmaceutical companies use Verify to automate and streamline the quality assurance process. 

In this section, we explore how various Verify features address the limitations of traditional methods and bring increased efficiency and reliability to the process.

TLF Converter

The TLF Converter feature transforms static files into machine-readable formats. By converting files into machine-readable formats, such as JSON, it becomes easier to perform various actions such as searching, comparing, and calculating. This tool saves a significant amount of time and effort, allowing for efficient data analysis.

AI-Driven Discrepancy Analysis 

AI algorithms specifically designed for discrepancy analysis thoroughly analyze outputs for discrepancies. These algorithms identify discrepancies related to dates, sums, titles, footnotes, and more. By conducting a comprehensive analysis, they provide a detailed overview of any identified discrepancies, ensuring the consistency and reliability of TLFs (Tables, Listings, and Figures).

Data Standards Assurance 

Statistical programmers use Lists of Tables (LoT), and Mock Shell documents as specifications for generating statistical outputs. Verify uses these documents to help enforce data standards and perform real-time checks to ensure that uploaded files adhere to company standards, including naming conventions, sheet names, and other formatting requirements. By enforcing standardized files, delays caused by the use of non-standardized files in statistical analysis are minimized, saving significant time and improving efficiency.

Status Resolution

Status resolution features allow end users to handle discrepancies identified by Verify. Users can assign statuses such as “Open,” “Pending,” or “Resolved” to track the progress of discrepancy resolution. Additionally, users can add notes to document any changes made during the resolution process, ensuring clear communication and accountability.

File Comparison

AI-driven file comparison enables statistical programmers and biostatisticians to automatically compare output tables between different versions. Using Verify, comparisons are performed automatically, identifying and highlighting identified discrepancies for further investigation. This can eliminate the need for manual comparisons using tools like Word/PDF compare and significantly reduces administrative time for end users.

JSON Extraction

With the JSON extraction feature, statistical programmers can extract metadata from tables that include information such as value types, column/row headers, titles, footnotes, and more. Utilizing the JSON file format enables statistical programmers to develop analytics applications and perform advanced data analysis efficiently.

By employing these features and techniques, quality assurance teams can effectively identify and address data anomalies in clinical trials. These advanced features enhance the accuracy, reliability, and efficiency of the data analysis process, ultimately contributing to the overall integrity of clinical trial findings.

Advance Accuracy and Streamline Processes Using Verify for Data Anomaly Detection

The importance of data integrity in clinical trials cannot be overstated, particularly when it comes to meeting regulatory requirements efficiently and minimizing delays caused by back-and-forth interactions with regulators. The team responsible for ensuring data integrity faces a challenging responsibility, as any failure to maintain data integrity carries significant implications for pharmaceutical companies, potentially leading to delayed time to market and substantial financial consequences.

Using Verify serves as a powerful ally for data integrity, catching discrepancies and anomalies that could otherwise go unnoticed. This helps identify and address data anomalies, streamline the validation process, and build confidence in the reliability and accuracy of clinical trial data.